Linking Words

Linking Words

       It is essential to understand how Linking Words, as a part of speech, can be used to combine ideas in writing - and thus ensure that ideas within sentences and paragraphs are elegantly connected - for the benefit of the reader. This will help to improve your writing (e.g. essay, comment, summary (scientific) review, (research) paper, letter, abstract, report, thesis, etc.).
It is also fundamental to be aware of the sometimes subtle meaning of these "small" words within the English language.

        "Linking Words" is used as a term to denote a class of English words which are employed to link or connect parts of speech or even whole sentences. They are also called connecting words. There are 2 categories of Linking Words (or Connecting Words):

List of Commonly Used Linking Words





Link independent clauses within a sentence. Link an independent clause with a dependent clause or phrase within a sentence.
Link independent clauses within a sentence.
Link sentences within a paragraph.
Use a comma before a coordinator:
I researched the topic, and I created the presentation.

When the dependent clause is at the beginning of the sentence, it should be followed by a comma:
After I researched the topic, I created the presentation.
Do not use a comma when the dependent clause is at the end of the sentence:
I created the presentation after I researched the topic.

When the transition begins the sentence, it should be followed by a comma:
First, I researched the topic.
Then, I created the presentation.
When the transition connects two independent clauses, a semi-colon comes before it and a comma follows it:
I researched the topic; afterwards, I created the presentation.
Showing time, beginning, during, ending 


  • Before
  • As
  • As long as
  • At the same time (as)
  • Every time
  • Since
  • So long as
  • The first/second/next/last time
  • When
  • Whenever
  • While
  • By the time
  • Till
  • Until

  • Afterward(s)
  • At first
  • Initially
  • Meanwhile
  • Meantime
  • Simultaneously
  • Eventually
  • Finally
Showing a sequence


  • After
  • As soon as
  • Ever since
  • Following
  • Later
  • Once

  • Next
  • Subsequently
  • Then
  • Thereafter
  • First
  • Firstly
  • Initially
  • To begin
  • Next
  • Second
  • Secondly
  • Then
  • Third
  • Thirdly
  • Finally
  • Last
  • Lastly
Showing conclusion


  • In all
  • In summation
  • In conclusion
  • To conclude
Showing contrast

Either … or

  • Although
  • Despite
  • Even though
  • In spite of
  • Instead of
  • Though
  • Whereas
  • While

  • By comparison
  • By contrast
  • Conversely
  • However
  • In contrast
  • Instead
  • Nevertheless
  • Nonetheless
  • On the contrary
  • On the other hand
  • Otherwise
Showing similarity Neither … nor
Either … or

  • In other words
  • Likewise
  • Similarly
Adding information


  • Additionally
  • Also
  • Besides
  • Further
  • Furthermore
  • In addition
  • Moreover
Adding example

  • For example
  • For instance
  • In particular

Showing cause


  • As a result of …
  • Because …
  • Due to (the fact that)
  • In order to …
  • Resulting from …
  • Since …
Showing effect


  • (If) … then
  • … resulting in
  • So …that
  • … then

  • Accordingly,
  • As a result,
  • Consequently,
  • Hence,
  • Therefore,
  • Thus,
Showing condition

  • Even if
  • If … then
  • In case
  • Provided that
  • Providing
  • Unless
  • Whether or not

Linking Words - A complete list of Transition Words & Conjunctions also called Cohesive Devices – Connecting Words

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